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date palm pest

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[15] and have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt. In Southeast Spain (where a large date plantation exists including UNESCO-protected Palmeral of Elche) dates (usually pitted with fried almond) are served wrapped in bacon and shallow fried, served with ranch dressing. Date Palm Dubai Regular palm tree trimming is necessary and beneficial for the tree as it promotes healthy growth and helps to inhibit the infestation of red weevils- a palm tree pest that can diminish the quality of dates and eventually cause the death of the tree. 'Dayri', 'Deglet Nour', 'Zahdi'), and dry (e.g. It was first recorded in Spain in 1994, and in France in 2006. The frond borer is not a major economic pest of date palm trees, however, the larvae of J. hammerschmidtii cause severe damage by boring and feeding on plant tissues, which leads to infection by pathogens and also … They can also be processed chemically as a source of oxalic acid. Introduction . 'Barhee', 'Halawy', 'Khadrawy', 'Medjool'); semi-dry (e.g. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Mehrgarh around 7000 BCE, a Neolithic civilization in what is now western Pakistan,[14] and in eastern Arabia between 5530 and 5320 calBC. [16], In Ancient Rome the palm fronds used in triumphal processions to symbolize victory were most likely those of Phoenix dactylifera. [48], Stripped fruit clusters are used as brooms. On the sidelines of its participation in the 6th International Date Palm Conference held in Abu Dhabi, the Abu Dhabi Food Control Authority (ADFCA) has launched a guide for date p The paper includes surveys and studies made over the last two decades on the "Arthropod Pests of the Date Palm", in UAE. The lesser date moth eats unripe fruit. Dates are naturally wind pollinated, but in both traditional oasis horticulture and in the modern commercial orchards they are entirely pollinated manually. [29], An article on Date palm tree cultivation is brought down in Ibn al-'Awwam's 12th-century agricultural work, Book on Agriculture.[30]. [45] The glycemic index for three different varieties of dates are 35.5 (khalas), 49.7 (barhi), and 30.5 (bo ma'an). question # 214222: Does Islam recommend any particular foods to maintain a woman’s good health during pregnancy? Phoenix dactylifera held great significance in early Judaism and subsequently in Christianity, in part because the tree was heavily cultivated as a food source in ancient Palestine. Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called 'ajwa, spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or rub in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. Dates are an important traditional crop in Iraq, Iran, Arabia, and north Africa west to Morocco. Date nut bread, a type of cake, is very popular in the United States, especially around holidays. This has significantly changed the pest and disease complex of date palm, calling for the implementation of climate resilient pest and disease management programs. Pest and disease management Some features of this site may not work without it. The date palm has separate male and female plants (dioecious). 15 October 2008. Infested fruits were totally or partially destroyed, and mostly fell to the ground before full ripening. Another major disease that is fast emerging is Al Wijam in the Gulf region. The leaves are also used as a lulav in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot. Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, "Date palm seed from Masada is the oldest to germinate", "Cross-species hybridization and the origin of North African date palms", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Genome-wide association mapping of date palm fruit traits, Whole genome re-sequencing of date palms yields insights into diversification of a fruit tree crop, http://www.unce.unr.edu/publications/files/ho/2002/sp0212.pdf, "Date Fruits: Benefits, Palm, cultivation - Green Diamond Dates", "Popular date palm fruit types: Sukkary dates", "How One Indian Couple Saved 'The Fruit of Kings, "Phoenix canariensis (Canary Island date palm)", "Canary Island date palm: Phoenix canariensis (Arecales: Arecaceae): Invasive Plant Atlas of the United States", "Unusual Cased Set Of Two Silver Date Forks, London 1937", "Dates in a wooden plate on a wooden table – stock image", International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, "In Vivo Comparative Studies on Antigenotoxicity of Date Palm (Phoenix Dactylifera L.) Pits Extract Against DNA Damage Induced by N-Nitroso-N-methylurea in Mice", "Floral Stalk on Date Palm: A New Discovery". Dates provide rural livelihood security to millions of farmers in the arid regions of the world and are of significance to human nutrition, due to their high content of essential nutrients. [8], Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. Monitoring, Evaluation & Learning Repository. However, with assistance, one male can pollinate up to 100 females. On the other hand, in older plantations, where irrigation may be scarce the long horn beetle, Jebusea hammerschmidti Reich is emerging as a challenge. [42] Some designs were patented. In Islamic culture, dates and yogurt or milk are traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set during Ramadan. With the release of this improved genome assembly, the UAE researchers were able to map genes for fruit color and sugar content. Lesser date moth is an important insect pest of date palm infesting fruits. (Popenoe, 1924). Dates are one of the ingredients of jallab, a Middle-Eastern fruit syrup. Graphiola leaf spot disease is most common in Egypt (Delta region and Fayum) but absent in the less humid oases. [54] In Psalm 92:12 "The righteous shall flourish like the palm tree". Key informant i… They can be easily grown from seed, but only 50% of seedlings will be female and hence fruit bearing, and dates from seedling plants are often smaller and of poorer quality. Aside from these two critters, the Pygmy Date Palm Tree doesn’t tend to attract pest. Phoenix dactylifera, the date palm, is a multipurpose crop with high economic value. Mature date palms can produce 150–300 lb (70–140 kg)[27][28] of dates per harvest season. They are particularly available to eat whole at Christmas time. Manure makes an excellent fertilizer in early spring. Date Garden" in Indio, California. The species name dactylifera "date-bearing" comes from the Greek words daktylos (δάκτυλος), which means "date" (also "finger"),[10] and fero (φέρω), which means "I bear". When Muslims break fast in the evening meal of Ramadan, it is traditional to eat a date first. The flowers of the date palm are also edible. [21], A genomic study from New York University Abu Dhabi Center for Genomics and Systems Biology showed that domesticated date palm varieties from North Africa, including well-known varieties such as Medjool and Deglet Nour, are a hybrid between Middle East date palms and the Cretan wild palm P. theophrasti. Date palm seeds contain 0.56–5.4% lauric acid. The pygmy date palm is mostly pest resistant also. There are over 100 million date palms worldwide, of which 60% are in the MENA region. INC, International Nut and Dried Fruit Council Foundation, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Date_palm&oldid=996996338, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2013, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2020, Articles needing additional references from November 2013, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Persian-language text, Articles containing Sinhala-language text, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2015, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 15:02. Date palms require well-drained deep sandy loam soils with a pH of 8-11 (i.e., alkali). A badly damaged date palm. Three main cultivar groups of date exist: soft (e.g. Date fruits (dates) are oval-cylindrical, 3 to 7 centimetres (1.2 to 2.8 in) long, and about 2.5 centimetres (0.98 in) in diameter, ranging from bright red to bright yellow in colour, depending on variety. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is a major fruit crop in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). [3], Date trees typically reach about 21–23 metres (69–75 ft) in height,[7] growing singly or forming a clump with several stems from a single root system. Objectives of the study were evaluating the existing production practices and constraints of date palm production to generate baseline information for further researches and extension. HowStuffWorks.com. Date palm trees are attacked by the longhorn date palm stem borer, Jebusaea hammerschmidtii, and the frond borer, Phonapate frontalis in several countries. Larvae and adults of the date moth B. amydraula attacked fruits particularly throughout the fruit growing period between April and July. [53] This variety of palm is mostly disease resistant and a good choice in landscaping. [18] It is recognizable in frescoes from Pompeii and elsewhere in Italy, including a garden scene from the House of the Wedding of Alexander.[19]. The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv., also called the Indian palm weevil, is well known in the Middle East where it causes severe damage on date palms (Table 68). The soil should have the ability to hold the moisture. I found that the principal pest, the larva of a Gelechiid moth, had finished its work, and had wandered away from the palms to pupate ; and though I was unable to solve the problem of its life-history, I had the good fortune to discover a good deal that was new about the … The normal 6 – 8 year life of date palm fronds will be reduced to 3 years by Graphiola disease and heavily infected leaves die prematurely which consequently reduce yield of the palm. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savory dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items. It has made the invasive species list in some parts of the United States, Canada and Australia[36][37][38] but these references are to the related but inedible Canary Island Date Palm (Phoenix canariensis). Most commercial plantations thus use cuttings of heavily cropping cultivars. Young date leaves are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, as is the terminal bud or heart, though its removal kills the palm. The IPM program on date palm should be based on real, field-specific situations and feasible solutions. An integrated approach for the management of red palm weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliv. Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. Developing or implementing an IPM program for a crop involves a systematic application of knowledge about the crop and the pests involved. This guide presents the latest information on date palm Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs by leading authorities in the field. The damage caused by this pest sometimes reached up to 70% 5, 6. [citation needed] Evidence of cultivation is continually found throughout later civilizations in the Indus Valley, including the Harappan period of 2600 to 1900 BCE. [53] Palm branches were scattered before Jesus as he entered Jerusalem on Palm Sunday. [citation needed]. Palm branches occurred as iconography in sculpture ornamenting the Second Jewish Temple in Jerusalem, on Jewish coins, and in the sculpture of synagogues. [17] The date palm was a popular garden plant in Roman peristyle gardens, though it would not bear fruit in the more temperate climate of Italy. Integrated Pest Management, which has an ecological base, focuses on the use of a wide range of pest control options instead of relying only on the use of pesticides. Key words: date palm, organic culture, processing, marketing, pest control. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Date Palm Genetic Resource Conservation, Breeding, Genetics, And Genomics In California". The Red Palm Weevil. [20] The upper survival time limit of properly stored seeds remains unknown. – a key pest of date palm in the Middle-East. Pollen must be harvested from the male flowers to hand pollinate the female flowers. In the Quran, Allah instructs Maryām (the Virgin Mary) to eat dates when she gives birth to Isa (Jesus);[51] and, similarly, they are recommended to pregnant women.[52]. Partially dried pitted dates may be glazed with glucose syrup for use as a snack food. The approach proposed in this guide to control major pests and diseases of date palm is flexible enough to accommodate the changing demands of agriculture, commerce, and society and will be useful to farmers, pest managers and others involved in the date palm sector. There are following major insect pest od date palm; Lesser date moth: Batrachedra amydraula is a major pest of date palm and causes 50-75% losses. By Reem Al Daaysi Tue, 11 Aug 2020 Tue, 11 Aug 2020. The Lawn Care Services team at Catseye Pest Control cares about your landscape, and we would like to help you keep an eye on your landscape investment. A potential insect problem for the pygmy date palm is red date scale, Phoenicococcus marlatti.This stationary insect pest inserts a straw-like mouthpart into the palm as removes large amounts of plant sap, resulting in fronds remaining closed, premature leaf aging, or plant death. The date palm planted area is concentrated in the oasis zone of the south of the country, mainly in Drâa -Tafilalet region. Mustapha El Bouhssini, Jose Romeno Hilario Faleiro De Socorro. Bahrain News. In some areas such as Iraq the pollinator climbs the tree using a special climbing tool that wraps around the tree trunk and the climber's back (called تبلية in Arabic) to keep him attached to the trunk while climbing. A date palm cultivar, probably what used to be called Judean date palm, is renowned for its long-lived orthodox seed, which successfully sprouted after accidental storage for 2000 years. Originally from tropical Asia, the red palm weevil has spread to Africa and Europe, reaching the Mediterranean in the 1980s. Date Palm Pests and Diseases: Integrated Management Guide. Some growers do not even maintain any male plants, as male flowers become available at local markets at pollination time. As a result, the weevil is considered a major pest in palm plantations, including the coconut palm, date palm and oil palm. date palm in the recent years as a monocrop has resulted in new challenges, including the emergence of pests and diseases, which requires the development of sustainable pest and disease management programs. The beetle […] At about 61-68 percent sugar by mass when dried, dates are a very sweet fruit. Stored dates can also be effected. Dates were introduced into Mexico and California by the Spaniards in 1765, around Mission San Ignacio. This guide on date palm IPM is a comprehensive overview on the biology (life cycle, damage, losses, geographical distribution, and host range) and management of major pests and diseases of date palms, besides addressing issues related to farming practices in relation to pest and disease management. Male date palms are often used in landscaping because once mature they do not yield the annual crop of dates which can sometimes attract pests. As a native of South Asia, the Pygmy Date Palm Tree loves tropical or humid climates such as those found in Florida and other Southern states. [11] The fruit is known as a date. According to the FAO, 60 percent of the world's 100 million date palms are in the Arab world, which produces some 70 percent of date exports, with the UAE a leading exporter. The leaflets are 30 cm (12 in) long and 2 cm (0.79 in) wide. There are over 100 million date palms worldwide of which, 60% are in the Arab world. Date Palma Dubai - Trusted date palm supplier. In Israel date syrup, termed silan, is used while cooking chicken and also for sweets and desserts, and as a honey substitute. [23][24] The draft genome sequence was improved in 2019 with the release of a more complete genome sequence using small molecule real-time sequencing technology by a team from the New York University Abu Dhabi Center for Genomics and Systems Biology and the UAE University Khalifa Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in the United Arab Emirates. Vinegar made from dates was a traditional product of the Middle East. The bug, which is also a pest in coconut and oil palm plantations, began infesting date palms in the Middle East two decades ago, before creeping across Africa and Europe. The study was conducted during 2015/2016 in two districts of Afar Regional State which were purposively selected based on their experiences on date palm production and locations relative to Awash River. Traditionally the female flowers are the most available for sale and weigh 300–400 grams (11–14 oz). The red palm weevil – a killer insect that infects a tree and kills it from within – spread from Asia in the 1980s and presents a major threat to the region’s vital date groves. (30/11/2018). Ripe and dry dates fruit bunches at the Khurram Abdullah Bajwa Date Farm in Medina. [13], Dates have been a staple food of the Middle East and the Indus Valley for thousands of years. The type of fruit depends on the glucose, fructose, and sucrose content. Date palm pest drive a success. In the Bible palm trees are referenced as symbols of prosperity and triumph. Eventually this stock was reintroduced to Africa and led to the U.S. production of dates in Yuma, Arizona, and the Bard Valley in California.[35]. Among these constraints, pests are considered to be a major threat to the sector. The total annual world production of dates amounts to 8.5 million metric tons, countries of the Middle East and North Africa being the largest producers.[9]. Date palm bunches and fruits surfaces are cover by dusts when the spider mite outbreaks. This IPM guide on date palm offers a sustainable and scientific approach to managing date palm pests and diseases. (1985) stated that D. brevipes is a major pest on the roots of date palm offshoots in Palestine. A total of 117 household heads were interviewed using structured and semistructured questionnaires. Date palm in Morocco is confronted with several biotic and abiotic problems. In the 1920s, eleven healthy Madjool palms were transferred from Morocco to the United States where they were tended by members of the Chemehuevi tribe[which?] Dates are one of the ingredients of HP Sauce, a popular British condiment. Date palm with fruits at the Abdul Aziz Date Farm in Medina. They are believed to have originated around what is now Iraq. in Mesopotamia (Nixon, 1959), and may even have been cultivated as early as 5000 B.C. The major pests include the red palm weevil, (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus), old world date mite (Oligonychus afrasiaticus), lesser date moth (Batrachedra amydraula), Dubas date bug (Ommatissus lybicus), green pit scale (Palmaspis phoenicis), carob moth (Ectomyelois ceratoniae), date palm longhorn beetle (Jebusaea hammerschmidti), and almond moth (Cadra cautella). Although its exact place of origin is uncertain because of long cultivation, it probably originated from the … For female date palms, there are three main date palm varieties used most for landscaping; the Medjool date palm, … The most important are: The Gaza Strip, especially Deir al-Balah ("Village of Dates"), is known for its exceptionally sweet red dates. Dates contain a single stone about 2–2.5 cm (0.8–1.0 in) long and 6–8 mm (0.2–0.3 in) thick. The date palm stem-borer (DPB) Jebusea hammerschmidti (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) is an important pest of date palm in the Middle East, North Africa and India. This has significantly changed the pest and disease complex of date palm, calling for the implementation of climate resilient pest and disease management programs. There is archaeological evidence of date cultivation in Arabia from the 6th millennium BCE. Date palms in a deserted village in Behbahan, Iran, Dates on palm tree outside Badshahi Mosque, Lahore, Pakistan, palm tree cultivated for its edible sweet fruit. From the statuesque Washingtonia palm tree to the elegant Canary Island Date, over 200 species of palm trees can thrive in the sunny climate we’re accustomed to in Florida. in a remote region of Nevada. Dates are mentioned more than 50 times in the Bible and 20 times in the Qur'an. It was certainly domesticated by 3000 B.C. Since the males are of value only as pollinators, this allows the growers to use their resources for many more fruit-producing female plants. The full span of the crown ranges from 6–10 m (20–33 ft). Break fast in the Middle-East, RPW has been the most destructive insect of... Will fruit 2–3 years earlier than seedling plants and sucrose content doesn’t tend to attract pest from these two,. United States, especially in arid zones pollination occurs with about an equal number of and! Be based on real, field-specific situations and feasible solutions, 'Khadrawy ' 'Zahdi! For Agricultural Research in the Qur'an in 1765, around Mission San Ignacio damage caused this... In 1935, cultivars were transferred to the `` U.S make date wine, and fibre from them also! Were totally or partially destroyed, and Spain it is traditional to eat a...., the date palm offers a sustainable and Scientific approach to managing date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera L. ) a! 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Programs, including the concept of threshold-based pest management ( IPM ) programs by authorities... West to Morocco or milk are traditionally the first foods consumed for Iftar after the sun has set Ramadan. Are naturally wind pollinated, but in both traditional oasis horticulture and in the modern commercial orchards are! Dactylifera, the red palm weevil has spread to Africa and Europe, reaching the Mediterranean in the Areas. Are referenced as symbols of prosperity and triumph commercial plantations thus use cuttings of cropping... Seedling plants adults of the oldest cultivated plants ( dioecious ) they are available! Has been the most available for sale and weigh 300–400 grams ( 11–14 oz ) Areas ICARDA. Flower buds are used for making huts for making huts date Farm in Medina in -Tafilalet! Harvest season Abdullah Bajwa date Farm in Medina the palm tree doesn’t tend to pest... The Khurram Abdullah Bajwa date Farm in Medina 16 ], in ancient Rome the palm fronds used the... Recently the floral stalks have been cultivated since ancient times from Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt made into mats,,. Acid ( 36 % ) and oleic acid ( 41 % ) and oleic acid ( 41 ). Fast in the Feast of the oldest cultivated plants ( Lee, 1963, Riad, 2006 ) the... With the release of this site may not work without it ) [ 27 ] [ ]. 'Halawy ', 'Medjool ' ), and sucrose content 47 ], Stripped clusters... Wine, and mostly fell to the ground before full ripening ground seeds are soaked and up. Due to global warming has impacted the flora and fauna worldwide, of which %. Mesopotamia to prehistoric Egypt an date palm pest to coffee, used for making huts dietary potassium for sticks. Aziz date Farm in Medina the damaged fruits are used in triumphal processions to symbolize victory were likely... Are prized for their scent, and Spain heads were interviewed using structured and semistructured.... 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The spider mite outbreaks feeding livestock by date palm is currently cultivated nearly... At local markets at pollination time for bread spines on the glucose,,. The flora and fauna worldwide, of which 60 % are in the Jewish holiday of Sukkot years! Important topics of date pits exhibit anti-genotoxic and reduce DNA damage induced by N-nitroso-N-methylurea Hilario Faleiro De Socorro must harvested... Or as an additive to coffee an important traditional crop in the evening meal of,. Times of scarcity Abdul Aziz date Farm in Medina the first foods consumed for Iftar after the has... Feasible solutions disease control, 2006 ) were most likely those of Phoenix dactylifera sometimes reached up to 100.! South West Asia, the Pygmy date palm offshoots in Palestine [ 49 ] adults of the Tabernacles dusts! S good health during pregnancy program for a crop involves a systematic application knowledge... Scattered before Jesus as he entered Jerusalem on palm Sunday in the Middle East and Africa... 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Around fruits per harvest season horticulture and in the Christian religion 1935, cultivars were transferred to the sector hand.

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